Sampling can e.g. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States.Â JAMA.Â 2003;289(2):179-86.Webster RG, Monto AS, Braciale TJ, Lamb RA (editors). Influenza (flu) is a potentially life threatening illness. ].An incorrect word in a sentence in Escherichia coli O157 Outbreaks in the United States, 2003–2012 (K.E. Read more in Influenza-related deaths - available methods for estimating numbers and detecting patterns for seasonal and pandemic influenza in Europe (Nicoll et al., 2012). Epidemics can result in high levels of worker/school absenteeism and productivity losses. But influenza can cause severe illness or death especially in people at high risk (see below). Injected inactivated influenza vaccines are most commonly used throughout the world. Influenza, acute viral infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract, marked by fever, chills, and a generalized feeling of malaise. Re-assortments are not that rare but only very occasionally lead to a viable influenza A virus, with ability to infect humans, cause disease in humans, cause sustained person-to-person transmission, and for which many or most humans have little or no immunity. individual factors, type of exposure, and risk associated with the exposure. Hayward AC, Fragaszy EB, Bermingham A, et al.Â Comparative community burden and severity of seasonal and pandemic influenza: results of the Flu Watch cohort study.Â Lancet Respir Med. There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease.. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. 2009 Feb 5;14(5). Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. All currently circulating influenza viruses are, children aged between 6 months to 5 years, elderly individuals (aged more than 65 years), individuals with chronic medical conditions, Regular hand washing with proper drying of the hands, Good respiratory hygiene – covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly, Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza, Avoiding touching one’s eyes, nose or mouth. alert_06. During the influenza surveillance season ECDC and WHO Europe jointly publish weekly updates on influenza in Europe, based on information provided by experts, virologists and medical doctors throughout the wider European region.Â, A global overview is also available from WHO.Â, All age groups are affected, though the proportions of the groups vary from year to year according to the dominating viruses and the level of population immunity.Â, The burden from seasonal influenza has two aspects. Lancet 2011; 378: 1917–3, WHO SAGE Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Recommendations during the COVID-19 Pandemic, World Health Assembly Update, 24 May 2019, WHO launches new global influenza strategy, Through a structured and coordinated response, Colombia seeks to leave no one behind in the fight against COVID-19, 8 Things to know about pandemic influenza, Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) ». Influenza viruses are usually classified into three types: A, B and C, according to differences in antigenic and biologic properties. Safe and effective vaccines are available and have been used for more than 60 years. In the northern hemisphere, including Europe, seasonal influenza generally occurs in epidemics between November and April each year, and in the southern hemisphere between June and October. The WHO European Region is entering the start of the influenza season, when people are more likely to become ill. Patients should monitor themselves to detect if their condition deteriorates and seek medical attention Patients that are known to be in a group at high risk for developing severe or complicated illness, (see above) should be treated with antivirals in addition to symptomatic treatment as soon as possible. The incubation time for seasonal influenza is on average two days, but ranges from one to four days. 2013 Jul;7(4):584-603. doi: 10.1111/irv.12000. That is then a pandemic strain (see Edwin D. Kilbourne, 2006;Â Influenza Pandemics of the 20th and 21st Century). Type C viruses cause some human disease but only comparatively few outbreaks. Firstly there is the severe disease and deaths. The diagnosis can be confirmed by taking specimens for laboratory analysis. All these influenza A viruses that have been detected in mammals or poultry originated at some point from wild aquatic birds. Cough, fatigue, and malaise may last some weeks. Overall influenza-associated mortality has been estimated to 13.8 per 100,000 person-years (Thompson, 2003). Moreover, some people become infected, shed virus, yet are subclinical or asymptomatic cases - their role in transmission is not conclusively determined. Herpes zoster: seasonal variations and morphological patterns in Pakistan "Overall in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (North America and Europe), pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses have been detected only sporadically or at very low levels during the past month," it added. Post-exposure prophylaxis with influenza antivirals, for example for an at-risk unvaccinated person, is dependent on timely prescription given that the incubation period is 1-4 days. However, at least one observational study of A(H1N1)pdm09 found improved survival in the severely ill when antiviral treatment was provided within five days of symptom onset (Louie, 2012). In most cases, virus is found in specimens from nose and throat from one day before symptom onset to four to five days after onset. iii: and the relevant Ph. Kilbourne E.Â Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. The usual experience following a pandemic is that the pandemic strain dominates the annual epidemics for some years. Routine laboratory diagnostics for influenza are usually performed by detecting the virus antigen or genome in specimens from the respiratory tract. Seasonal epidemics during those years can be more severe than during the years before the pandemic. Â Vaccination is especially important for people at higher risk of serious influenza complications: Individuals with specific chronic medical conditions, pregnant women, and children aged 6-59 months, the elderly and healthcare workers. The cough can be severe and can last 2 or more weeks. There is also some evidence that infectious aerosols may play a role in influenza transmission. Find information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Seasonal influenza is a respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. Partners and networks working with influenza prevention and control. individual factors, type of exposure, and risk associated with the exposure. Secondly, but of greater economic impact, are the large numbers of mild to moderate cases which result in time off work, losses to production and pressure and costs on the health and social care services.Â. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms of influenza such as fever. 2010; 138(11):1559-68. “The first skill of a great translator is humbleness, to be a servant. NEJM 2005; 353:2633-2636. Learn more about the classification of influenza viruses, influenza outbreaks, and influenza symptoms and treatment. Nicoll A, Ciancio BC, Lopez Chavarrias V, MÃ¸lbak K, Pebody R, Pedzinski B, et al. Killingley B, Nguyen-Van-Tam J.Â Routes of influenza transmission.Â Influenza Other Respir Viruses. MacIntyre CR, Epid MA, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Cheung P, et al. However, some countries, such as India and New Zealand, are continuing to experience significant levels of influenza H1N1 (2009), and national authorities in … 2012;Â 17(18):pii: 20162. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures. Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap and water, and dried. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, droplets containing viruses (infectious droplets) are dispersed into the air and can spread up to one meter, and infect persons in close proximity who breathe these droplets in. Influenza Surveillance Report, FluView. It is usually not prescribed for more than 10 days. Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. 2nd ed. It is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract caused by influenza viruses. (1) Estimates of US influenza-associated deaths made using four different methods. Since 1999 inhaled zanamivir is authorised in all EU/EEA Member States except Cyprus, and since 2002 oral oseltamivir is authorised in all EU Member States. Estimating influenza-related excess mortality and reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza in Norway, 1975â2004. All age groups can be affected but there are groups that are more at risk than others. 2014;2(6):445-54. In industrialized countries most deaths associated with influenza occur among people age 65 or older (1). Although vaccination is the preferred option for preventing influenza, antivirals can be useful when the vaccine fails. Once you are a servant, you may be lucky to be called a master of your craft. cerebral palsy); andÂ. Since the most recent influenza pandemic in 2009 seasonal influenza consists of variable mixes of influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 - the latter caused the 2009 pandemic, and the two B virus lineages. Avoiding close contact with sick people, e.g. This virological surveillance in the EU is of the utmost importance and contributes to theÂ WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)Â that monitors the evolution of influenza viruses. When available, either the upper and lower 95% confidence intervals of the different rates have been used to estimate the burden, or the stricter or more inclusive rate estimates. Emerg Infect Dis. Vaccination is especially important for people at high risk of influenza complications, and for people who live with or care for the people at high risk. Apart from the age-related increased risk, the risk of complications is increased for people of any age with particular chronic medical conditions: Moreover, healthy pregnant women have been found to be at increased risk of becoming hospitalized due to respiratory illness during influenza seasons (Dodds, 2007). Good respiratory hygiene â covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, using tissues and disposing of them correctly. 2007;176(4):463-8. Except for virus culture these results can be available within approximately 1-2 days, and can help adjust the treatment. In many languages people may use the term âfluâ not exclusively for influenza virus but also for mild diseases caused by other infectious agents. The flu, or influenza, is a highly contagious viral infection that mainly affects the respiratory system. Influenza risk groups are people who are more likely than others develop complications should they be infected. Immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is recommended to protect against influenza. • People at higher risk of influenza complications (see “Who is at risk”) are strongly Serological testing for detection of antibodies to seasonal influenza viruses is useful for research studies and requires collection of appropriately timed acute and convalescent serum specimens and testing of … Neuraminidase inhibitors, oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir, are useful for treatment and prophylactic use. rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus can also present as Influenza-like Illness (ILI) which makes the clinical differentiation of influenza from other pathogens difficult. Textbook of Influenza. 21, PMID: 26197993. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013. Heiman et al.) Proper collection, storage and transport of respiratory specimens is the essential first step for laboratory detection of influenza virus infections. Laboratory confirmation of influenza virus from throat, nasal and nasopharyngeal secretions or tracheal aspirate or washings is commonly performed using direct antigen detection, virus isolation, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Due to the high resistance (>99%) adamantanes are no longer recommended. cdc:32653[This corrects the article on p. 1293 in vol. However, in 2009-2010, when the most recent influenza pandemic took place,, A(H1N1)pdm09 replaced A(H1N1). Alcohol-based hand sanitisers reduce the amount of influenza virus on contaminated hands. This most commonly manifests itself in pneumonia, and at times even death. Thompson WW,Â Shay DK,Â Weintraub E, et al. Influenza A viruses are further divided into subtypes. Despite the often short duration of illness, the yearly economic and healthcare burden of influenza is substantial. A total of 664 hospital admissions and 85 confirmed deaths have been reported since the beginning of winter 2017. Furthermore, exacerbations of underlying disease, e.g. 2005 Jun 21;2:6. 2009 April. Type B infections are less common and usually milder than influenza A(H3N2). In some cases the pandemic strain replaces one of the previously circulating strains. Seasonal influenza vaccines are produced either in embryonated hens’ eggs or on a cell culture substrate. Euro Surveill. The virus can also be spread by hands contaminated with influenza viruses. Influenza surveillance is carried out worldwide, including in the EU. Pandemics are the result of larger genetic changes called antigenic shift. Summary information on antiviral resistance from influenza viruses in Europe is published in theÂ weekly influenza update Flu News Europe. For A(H1N1)pdm09 oseltamivir resistance has so far only been detected at very low levels in Europe. coronary artery disease);Â, chronic kidney diseases (e.g. Influenza spreads predominantly via the droplet and contact routes when people cough and sneeze, and by indirect spread through respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. For many years, WHO has updated its recommendation on the composition of the vaccine (trivalent) that targets the 3 most representative virus types in circulation (two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). chronic renal failure);Â, chronic neurological conditions and physical handicap (e.g. inadvertently changed the meaning. Based on published literature (Dawood, 2010; Hayward, 2014; Ortiz, 2014; Thompson 2003), mainly from the USA and extrapolated to an EU/EEA population of approximately 512 million, the burden of seasonal influenza has been estimated (Figure 1). Seasonal influenza vaccines shall be compliant with the Ph. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. Seasonal influenza, a contagious respiratory illness, strikes every year—affecting 5 to 20 percent of the U.S. population annually. Pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals is possible but depends on several factors e.g. The use of these drugs is very variable between European countries (Kramarz et al., 2009), as are the policies.Â. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures: It is thought that all of these measures may reduce the risk of transmission of influenza though in fact the evidence base is weak. Moreover, an EU target was set by the Health Council of all Health Ministers of 75% vaccination coverage by 2014/15 in the older age groups, and if possible extended to people with chronic conditions.Â. Kramarz P (2009), Monnet D, Nicoll A, Yilmaz C, Ciancio B.Â Use of oseltamivir in 12 European countries between 2002 and 2007 â lack of association with the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Additionally, aerosol transmission plays a part in influenza … Vaccination is the most effective form of influenza prevention. Various guidance on the laboratory techniques is published and updated by WHO. There are a number of other estimates of excess deaths from European countries (Gran et al., 2010; Nogueira et al., 2009; Zucs et al., 2005).Â Â. The young have an increased risk of being infected because they have not developed immunity to the virus. depend on the nature of the pandemic influenza virus, immunization coverage and pre-existing immunity in the population.Â. A number of inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines are available in injectable form. WHO also recommends vaccination of healthcare workers. On average an infectious person will infect less than two non-immune people. influenza meaning: 1. formal for flu 2. formal for flu 3. flu. The majority of cases of human influenza are clinically diagnosed. Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014. The early antivirals, adamantane compounds (amantadine and rimantadine), act as M2 inhibitors and are active against influenza A. 7. At irregular intervals there are influenza pandemics. Moreover, immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is necessary for the vaccine to protect against influenza. Form Approved OMB Control No. Addressing the nose, throat and tongue - Duration: 15:15. In the U.S. alone, annual deaths caused by flu range from 3,300 to 48,600 people, and more than 200,000 are hospitalized each year from flu-related complications. Severe disease may also include myocarditis or encephalitis, which may be fatal. Additionally, aerosol transmission plays a part in influenza virus transmission. Available fromÂ http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/15/2/233.htm. 2015;21(2):368-71. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment, the public health management includes personal protective measures like: WHO, through the WHO GISRS system, in collaboration with other partners, monitors influenza activity globally, recommends seasonal influenza vaccine compositions twice a year for the Northern and Southern hemisphere influenza seasons, guides countries in tropical and subtropical areas to choose vaccine formulations (Northern hemisphere vs. Southern hemisphere), to support decisions for timing of vaccination campaigns, and to support Member States to develop prevention and control strategies. If the infected person doesnât cover his or her mouth and nose people within a range of two meters can be infected. These should target uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination and also perceptions of risk and beliefs about the efficacy and safety of pandemic influenza vaccinations. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. Dawood FS1,Â Fiore A,Â Kamimoto L, et al. Thompson WW, Weintraub E, Dhankhar P, Cheng OY, Brammer L, Meltzer MI, et al. While the beginning of major flu activity in each season varies by location, in any specific location these minor epidemics usually take about three weeks to reach its pinnacle, and another 3 weeks to significantly diminish. In temperate climates, seasonal epidemics occur mainly during winter while in tropical regions, influenza … • Seasonal influenza vaccination is available for anyone aged 6 months and over to protect against influenza, provided they do not have a medical reason that precludes them from receiving influenza vaccines. (Killingley, 2013). It may e.g. WHO recommended surveillance standards, Second edition. Early self-isolation of those feeling unwell, feverish and having other symptoms of influenza. It is caused by influenza virus and is easily transmitted, predominantly via the droplet and contact routes and by indirect spread from respiratory secretions on hands, tissues, etc. by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus. Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons (eg: asthma and other specific conditions); as it has been associated with prolonged viral clearance, immunosuppression leading to bacterial or fungal superinfection. Seasonal influenza is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and a runny nose. Viral shedding continues for a somewhat longer period in young children, elderly, and those who have weakened immune systems, compared to adults. The pathogen. 0920-1303 Expiration Date: 12/31/2020 This declaration is for tenants, lessees, or residents of residential properties who are covered by the CDC’s order temporarily halting residential evictions (not including foreclosures on home mortgages) to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Hospitalization and death occur mainly among high risk groups. Influenza definition is - an acute, highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by any of three orthomyxoviruses:. This results in gradual changes of the human seasonal influenza viruses. Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, et al.Â The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations.Â Crit Care Med. Factors associated with vaccine uptake 1. But did you know that seasonal flu and pandemic flu are not the same? Gran JM, Iversen B, Hungnes O, et al.Â Estimating influenza-related excess mortality and reproduction numbers for seasonal influenza in Norway, 1975â2004;Â Epidemiol Infect. chronic bronchitis);Â, cardiovascular disease (e.g. the exchange of at least one RNA segment. Microbiology and laboratory reports; External quality assessments, Influenza virus characterisations. When hand-washing is not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitisers are an option. Treatment is recommended for a minimum of 5 days, but can be extended until there is satisfactory clinical improvement. Global burden of respiratory infections due to seasonal influenza in young children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg Infect Dis; 2006. Seasonal influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that each year infects approximately 10 to 30 % of Europe's population, and causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalisations across Europe. The level of antiviral resistance is closely followed by public health authorities. Dodds L, McNeil SA, Fell DB, et al.Â Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women.Â CMAJ. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. 2013;7 Suppl 2:42-51. Each year, influenza causes serious infection and death around the globe, usually in the winter months (seasonal influenza). Influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the familyÂ Orthomyxoviridae, and have a worldwide distribution. A single acute serum specimen for seasonal influenza serology is uninterpretable and should not be collected. Â© European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) 2020, Questions and answers on seasonal influenza, Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009. WHO GISRS monitors resistance to antivirals among circulating influenza viruses to provide timely guidance for antiviral use in clinical management and potential chemoprophylaxis. Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses which circulate in all parts of the world. Most people recover from fever and other symptoms within a week without requiring medical attention. They frequently have underlying diseases which reduce their resistance to infection, and their immune response may also be less effective. http://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/15/2/233.htm, Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) virus, Europe, 2007â08 season, Oseltamivir resistance â disabling our influenza defences. In Europe, and the rest of the northern hemisphere, seasonal influenza generally occurs in regular annual epidemics in winter, between November and April. monograph for Vaccines for human use. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. chemotherapy). Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a sufficient percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, whether through vaccination or previous infections, thereby reducing the … Jefferson T, et al.Â Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review. The influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics of acute illnesses every winter. Among healthy adults, influenza vaccine provides protection, even when circulating viruses do not exactly match the vaccine viruses. Health care workers are at high risk acquiring influenza virus infection due to increased exposure to the patients and risk further spread particularly to vulnerable individuals. The severity of seasonal influenza depends on the virus, host factors, and other factors, e.g. Influenza is one of the world's greatest infectious disease challenges. Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and spread across Europe. However, among the elderly, influenza vaccination may be less effective in preventing illness but reduces severity of disease and incidence of complications and deaths. It is important that specimens are collected as early as possible after symptom onset. (3). Read more about avian influenza and swine influenza. Latest surveillance reports and disease data on seasonal influenza; Flu News Europe, Influenza virus characterisation reports, ECDC Surveillance Atlas, Annual Epidemiological Reports. There is also evidence of a fourth type: D (Ducatez, 2015). Influenza activity can sometimes be predicted and even tracked geographically. To prevent transmission, people should cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing, and wash their hands regularly. Quadrivalent vaccines include a 2nd influenza B virus in addition to the viruses in trivalent vaccines, and are expected to provide wider protection against influenza B virus infections. Seasonal influenza causes 4 -50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA each year, and 15 000 â 70 000 European citizens die every year of causes associated with influenza. PIP stories from the field - October 2020. However, during periods of low influenza activity and outside of epidemics situations, the infection of other respiratory viruses e.g. The network combines epidemiological and virological surveillance of influenza. WHO works to strengthen national, regional and global influenza response capacities including diagnostics, antiviral susceptibility monitoring, disease surveillance and outbreak responses, and to increase vaccine coverage among high risk groups and prepare for the next influenza pandemic. PLoS ONE 3(5): e2101. Patients that are not from a high risk group should be managed with symptomatic treatment and are advised, if symptomatic, to stay home in order to minimize the risk of infecting others in the community. Influenza A and influenza B cause seasonal epidemics in the United States and elsewhere every winter. oseltamivir) should be prescribed as soon as possible (ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset) to maximize therapeutic benefits. Antibodies to one type or subtype of influenza do not necessarily protect against other influenza virus types or subtypes (so called cross protection). Activity has been elevated for eight weeks according to CDC's Weekly U.S. How to use influenza in a sentence. Diagnosis of influenza in children is discussed separately. Type B does not have subtypes but two antigenically distinct lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. A number of other viruses and bacteria cause similar symptoms so that much of influenza-like illness (ILI) is not actually caused by influenza. Ducatez MF, Pelletier C, Meyer G.Â Influenza D virus in cattle, France, 2011-2014.Â Emerg Infect Dis. Least 40-60 seconds each time, especially after coughing or sneezing of feeling. To humans in laboratories include RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunoassay, immunofluorescence, and dried vaccines are most commonly itself. 5 days, and virus culture these results can be useful when the vaccine fails into. The spread of respiratory viruses: systematic review and meta-analysis treatment is recommended to protect influenza. 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Majority of seasonal influenza is on average have a worldwide distribution influenza: results of the influenza. Few outbreaks 2003–2012 ( K.E immunity from vaccination wanes over time so annual vaccination is necessary for the viruses.
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